Waste to Compost
PROCESS 1 – Bioreactor: Waste to Compost (wCompost™)
- ICC has developed an innovative in-vessel composting solution for managing source separated organics (SSO) in a time-efficient and cost-effective way.
- SSO that was once landfilled can now be processed and sold back to the community as nutrient rich organic compost, thereby completing the loop.
- ICC’s composting solution can be successfully integrated into a community by either utilizing existing buildings or infrastructure, providing a standalone purpose built processing facility or as part of a larger fully operational recycling centre.
- ICC provides fully installed and commissioned composting process equipment, or complete turnkey project management, upon request.
- One of the cornerstones of sustainable communities is the ability to effectively deal with organic waste.
- ICC offers an opportunity for SSO from food waste and yard & garden debris to be processed into premium quality compost.
- ICC has developed a unique in-vessel flow through composting process that meets or exceeds all composting standards worldwide and yet is cost-effective to operate.
Fully Enclosed Process:
All the organic material is received and composted within one building. To ensure a clean, odour controlled operation, the facility uses negative air pressure and a highly efficient bio-filter.
Flow Through Operation:
All the material received in the facility is processed daily. Unlike a batch operation, a flow-through system adapts easily to fluctuation in daily waste stream volume.
All facilities have effluent control technology to meet the most stringent environmental regulations. Leachate from the tipping floor areas are collected and if required treated. Compost plants have leachate that is used in the production of product.
ICC plants can be installed in existing buildings or can be housed in a purpose built insulated structure. Typically we use steel framed metal clad buildings. However, ICC is able to accommodate any suitable structure. The equipment requires approximately 25 feet of high space to allow for the installation of the Bioreactors. Steel buildings do require that all the framework metal is either oxidized or protected from possible corrosion using epoxy paint. Typical floor plans for a 120 tonne per day compost plant and a 180 tonne per day power/heat plant are provided below. Facilities can also be constructed such that both compost and heat & power can be provided.
Typical Bioreactor Package
- The Bioreactor model V030 is a steel cylinder/drum 10’ in diameter and 50’ in length (96 Cu yards or 73 Cu meters operating capacity). The Bioreactor V030 is held on two saddles that use a friction reduction plastic contact (UHMW) and can be rotated about their longitudinal axis.
- There are two models of the V030 that ICC fabricates. The V030NA model is used for North America and is designed to reach temperatures of 55°C.
- The V030EU has been designed for the European market and reaches temperatures of up to 70°C for a minimum of one hour each 24 hour cycle.
- The Bioreactors are insulated to help maintain elevated temperatures. Insulation is applied on the drum by spraying a high density, polyurethane foam on its surface. The insulation ranges from 1.5” to 4” in thickness. This foam is then covered with a resistant elastomeric coating. Each Bioreactor is fitted with a set of heating blankets. For the North American market one set of blankets is fitted to the unit (VO30NA). This unit is design to operate at a temperature of 55°C.
- The Bioreactor is connected to a chain drive mechanism that surrounds the drum. The VFD controlled motor is used to turn the drum and control its speed. The drive also allows for positive traction, and for some areas of the world provides added insurance for stability in the event of an earthquake. This unit is fitted with a 7 horse power motor and will rotate at up to 6.5 revolutions per hour.
(Bioreactor model V030 capable of 30 tonnes/day)
State of the art Bioreactors are specifically designed by ICC team and are part of ICC's patent pending process. Specifications include:
- 10’ DIA (3048 DiA) X 50’ (15240 LG) Drum;
- Unit Mounted on 1” (25mm) welded plate saddles and mounting frame;
- (PLC) Programmable logic controller with control software;
- Inverter motor and in-line high ratio planetary gearbox;
- Instrumentation package to monitor temperature and oxygen levels;
- Insulated polyurethane foam tested to ASTM E-84\Air management system with recirculated process air;
- 96 Cu Yd operating capacity (up to 30 tonnes per day);
- Approximate shipping weight is 55,000lbs (24,887 kg); and
- Optional: External Heating System consisting of:
V030NA -6 Blankets to reach 65°C operating temperatures
V030EU - 12 Blankets to reach up to 70°C operating temperatures
Compost Facility Accessories
A complete ICC composting facility will contain all of these additional items, however each facility can be custom tailored to suit the specific needs of the client:
- Feedstock Size Reduction Shredder;
- Feedstock Mixer;
- Input Auger Assembly;
- Instrumentation Package for Indoor/Outdoor bays;
- Raised Operator Walkway and Input Conveyor Support;
- Input, Discharge and Stacking Coveyors; and
- Composter Exhaust System.
- ICC's composting process occurs in two separate phases.
- In the first phase, design criteria were created to reach 60 to 70°C in the composter for ~3 days, depending on the material used and jurisdictional requirements.
- In the second phase maturation process, the temperature and oxygen level are measured continually for a minimum of 21 days to ensure quality and uniformity of product.
- Oxygen and temperatures are continuously and automatically monitored and recorded.
- ICC’s compost meets the highest quality OMRR standards. British Columbia’s Organic Matter Recycling Regulation (OMRR) governs the production, quality, and land application of compost and biosolids.
Pre-processing of input material using the patented ICC Bioreactors
- Bioreaction in-vessel accelerates the activation phase for the organics material, while minimizing odours. The biological activity that ensues within the bioreactor raises the core temperature of the material to over 55°C and creates a pathogen reduced, homogeneous feedstock. After about three days in the bioreactors the feedstock has:
- Reduced pathogen populations at temperatures over 55°C (in Europe minimum temperatures of 64°C are achieved);
- Mixed thoroughly to a homogeneous distribution;
- A low bulk density for efficient drying;
- Calorific energy value of 16,000kJ/kg (7200 BTU/lb) dry basis; and
- Reduced in moisture to between 45 and 55% (if starting close to 60%).
- Upon discharge from the bioreactor, the material is conveyed to a discharge bay where it is aerated for further processing. Material that is intended for organic compost production (≈10%) is then placed in piles on a series of aerated floors within a building for an additional period up to 35 days.
- Upon discharge from the ICC bioreactors, an intense period of aeration, usually lasting only 5-6 days, will dry the remaining feedstock material (≈90%) to a moisture content below 40%. At this time, the organics will have broken down through the initial bioreaction phase to produce a homogeneous material, ideal for use as gasifier feedstock.
- ICC’s process uses a modular approach to in-vessel composting. Additional Bioreactors are added to the processing line as the waste stream volume increases.